Melanie Ott, PhD

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(415) 734-4807

1650 Owens St
San Francisco, CA 94107

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  • Professor, School of Medicine
  • Senior Investigator, The Ott Lab, Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology

Biography

My laboratory is interested in the molecular mechanisms of viral pathogenesis. We focus on a variety of viruses including HIV-1, Hepatitis B and C Virus (HBV and HCV), Zika and SARS-CoV-2. We believe that identifying common host pathways involved in different viruses can lead to the discovery of panviral therapeutics. All are important public health problems and with HCV and HIV sharing common traits including high propensities to establish chronic infections and a lack of efficient vaccines, and Zika and SARS-CoV-2 causing global pandemics leading to death and disability. In recent years, we have established four main technologies to study these viruses—rapid quantitative tests, human organoids, a viral protein library and transcriptomics and chromatin biology. We recently applied these technologies to the studies of SARS-CoV-2, leading to the development of a new direct detection CRISPR diagnostic and the identification of shared host factors necessary for the replication of SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2, HCV and HIV research in my laboratory includes replication studies with infectious viral clones, which are performed in the BSL3 laboratory. Recent rotation projects in the lab:

• characterizing influenza B infection in human airway organoids
• developing a new hepatitis B clone to screen for host factors regulating cccDNA formation

Displaying 1 - 116 of 116

  1. Liu TY, Knott GJ, Smock DCJ, Desmarais JJ, Son S, Bhuiya A, Jakhanwal S, Prywes N, Agrawal S, Díaz de León Derby M, Switz NA, Armstrong M, Harris AR, Charles EJ, Thornton BW, Fozouni P, Shu J, Stephens SI, Kumar GR, Zhao C, Mok A, Iavarone AT, Escajeda AM, McIntosh R, Kim S, Dugan EJ, IGI Testing Consortium , Pollard KS, Tan MX, Ott M, Fletcher DA, Lareau LF, Hsu PD, Savage DF, Doudna JA. Accelerated RNA detection using tandem CRISPR nucleases. Nat Chem Biol. 2021 09; 17(9):982-988. View on Pubmed
  2. Funk C, Marques da Silveira E Santos D, Ott M, Raschbichler V, Bailer SM. The HSV1 Tail-Anchored Membrane Protein pUL34 Contains a Basic Motif That Supports Active Transport to the Inner Nuclear Membrane Prior to Formation of the Nuclear Egress Complex. Viruses. 2021 Aug 05; 13(8). View on Pubmed
  3. Biering SB, Van Dis E, Wehri E, Yamashiro LH, Nguyenla X, Dugast-Darzacq C, Graham TGW, Stroumza JR, Golovkine GR, Roberts AW, Fines DM, Spradlin JN, Ward CC, Bajaj T, Dovala D, Schulze-Gamen U, Bajaj R, Fox DM, Ott M, Murthy N, Nomura DK, Schaletzky J, Stanley SA. Screening a Library of FDA-Approved and Bioactive Compounds for Antiviral Activity against SARS-CoV-2. ACS Infect Dis. 2021 08 13; 7(8):2337-2351. View on Pubmed
  4. Le BL, Andreoletti G, Oskotsky T, Vallejo-Gracia A, Rosales R, Yu K, Kosti I, Leon KE, Bunis DG, Li C, Kumar GR, White KM, García-Sastre A, Ott M, Sirota M. Transcriptomics-based drug repositioning pipeline identifies therapeutic candidates for COVID-19. Sci Rep. 2021 06 10; 11(1):12310. View on Pubmed
  5. Weinberg ZY, Hilburger CE, Kim M, Cao L, Khalid M, Elmes S, Diwanji D, Hernandez E, Lopez J, Schaefer K, Smith AM, Zhou F, QCRG Structural Biology Consortium , Renuka Kumar G, Ott M, Baker D, El-Samad H. Sentinel cells enable genetic detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. bioRxiv. 2021 Apr 20. View on Pubmed
  6. Deng X, Garcia-Knight MA, Khalid MM, Servellita V, Wang C, Morris MK, Sotomayor-González A, Glasner DR, Reyes KR, Gliwa AS, Reddy NP, Sanchez San Martin C, Federman S, Cheng J, Balcerek J, Taylor J, Streithorst JA, Miller S, Sreekumar B, Chen PY, Schulze-Gahmen U, Taha TY, Hayashi JM, Simoneau CR, Kumar GR, McMahon S, Lidsky PV, Xiao Y, Hemarajata P, Green NM, Espinosa A, Kath C, Haw M, Bell J, Hacker JK, Hanson C, Wadford DA, Anaya C, Ferguson D, Frankino PA, Shivram H, Lareau LF, Wyman SK, Ott M, Andino R, Chiu CY. Transmission, infectivity, and neutralization of a spike L452R SARS-CoV-2 variant. Cell. 2021 06 24; 184(13):3426-3437.e8. View on Pubmed
  7. Telwatte S, Martin HA, Marczak R, Fozouni P, Vallejo-Gracia A, Kumar GR, Murray V, Lee S, Ott M, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Novel RT-ddPCR assays for measuring the levels of subgenomic and genomic SARS-CoV-2 transcripts. Methods. 2021 Apr 18. View on Pubmed
  8. Le BL, Andreoletti G, Oskotsky T, Vallejo-Gracia A, Rosales R, Yu K, Kosti I, Leon KE, Bunis DG, Li C, Kumar GR, White KM, García-Sastre A, Ott M, Sirota M. Transcriptomics-based drug repositioning pipeline identifies therapeutic candidates for COVID-19. Res Sq. 2021 Mar 30. View on Pubmed
  9. Liu TY, Knott GJ, Smock DCJ, Desmarais JJ, Son S, Bhuiya A, Jakhanwal S, Prywes N, Agrawal S, de León Derby MD, Switz NA, Armstrong M, Harris AR, Charles EJ, Thornton BW, Fozouni P, Shu J, Stephens SI, Kumar GR, Zhao C, Mok A, Iavarone AT, Escajeda AM, McIntosh R, Kim SE, Dugan EJ, IGI Testing Consortium , Pollard KS, Tan MX, Ott M, Fletcher DA, Lareau LF, Hsu PD, Savage DF, Doudna JA. Accelerated RNA detection using tandem CRISPR nucleases. medRxiv. 2021 Mar 24. View on Pubmed
  10. Kulsuptrakul J, Wang R, Meyers NL, Ott M, Puschnik AS. A genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies UFMylation and TRAMP-like complexes as host factors required for hepatitis A virus infection. Cell Rep. 2021 Mar 16; 34(11):108859. View on Pubmed
  11. Perez-Bermejo JA, Kang S, Rockwood SJ, Simoneau CR, Joy DA, Silva AC, Ramadoss GN, Flanigan WR, Fozouni P, Li H, Chen PY, Nakamura K, Whitman JD, Hanson PJ, McManus BM, Ott M, Conklin BR, McDevitt TC. SARS-CoV-2 infection of human iPSC-derived cardiac cells reflects cytopathic features in hearts of patients with COVID-19. Sci Transl Med. 2021 04 21; 13(590). View on Pubmed
  12. Deng X, Garcia-Knight MA, Khalid MM, Servellita V, Wang C, Morris MK, Sotomayor-González A, Glasner DR, Reyes KR, Gliwa AS, Reddy NP, Sanchez San Martin C, Federman S, Cheng J, Balcerek J, Taylor J, Streithorst JA, Miller S, Kumar GR, Sreekumar B, Chen PY, Schulze-Gahmen U, Taha TY, Hayashi J, Simoneau CR, McMahon S, Lidsky PV, Xiao Y, Hemarajata P, Green NM, Espinosa A, Kath C, Haw M, Bell J, Hacker JK, Hanson C, Wadford DA, Anaya C, Ferguson D, Lareau LF, Frankino PA, Shivram H, Wyman SK, Ott M, Andino R, Chiu CY. Transmission, infectivity, and antibody neutralization of an emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant in California carrying a L452R spike protein mutation. medRxiv. 2021 Mar 09. View on Pubmed
  13. Telwatte S, Kumar N, Vallejo-Gracia A, Kumar GR, Lu CM, Ott M, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Novel RT-ddPCR assays for simultaneous quantification of multiple noncoding and coding regions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. J Virol Methods. 2021 06; 292:114115. View on Pubmed
  14. Gramatica A, Schwarzer R, Brantley W, Varco-Merth B, Sperber HS, Hull PA, Montano M, Migueles SA, Rosenthal D, Hogan LE, Johnson JR, Packard TA, Grimmett ZW, Herzig E, Besnard E, Nekorchuk M, Hsiao F, Deeks SG, Snape M, Kiernan B, Roan NR, Lifson JD, Estes JD, Picker LJ, Verdin E, Krogan NJ, Henrich TJ, Connors M, Ott M, Pillai SK, Okoye AA, Greene WC. Evaluating a New Class of AKT/mTOR Activators for HIV Latency Reversing Activity Ex Vivo and In Vivo. J Virol. 2021 Feb 03. View on Pubmed
  15. Andrews MG, Mukhtar T, Eze UC, Simoneau CR, Perez Y, Mostajo-Radji MA, Wang S, Velmeshev D, Salma J, Kumar GR, Pollen AA, Crouch EE, Ott M, Kriegstein AR. Tropism of SARS-CoV-2 for Developing Human Cortical Astrocytes. bioRxiv. 2021 Jan 18. View on Pubmed
  16. Telwatte S, Kumar N, Vallejo-Gracia A, Kumar GR, Lu CM, Ott M, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Novel RT-ddPCR Assays for determining the transcriptional profile of SARS-CoV-2. bioRxiv. 2021 Jan 12. View on Pubmed
  17. Covarrubias AJ, Kale A, Perrone R, Lopez-Dominguez JA, Pisco AO, Kasler HG, Schmidt MS, Heckenbach I, Kwok R, Wiley CD, Wong HS, Gibbs E, Iyer SS, Basisty N, Wu Q, Kim IJ, Silva E, Vitangcol K, Shin KO, Lee YM, Riley R, Ben-Sahra I, Ott M, Schilling B, Scheibye-Knudsen M, Ishihara K, Quake SR, Newman J, Brenner C, Campisi J, Verdin E. Author Correction: Senescent cells promote tissue NAD+ decline during ageing via the activation of CD38+ macrophages. Nat Metab. 2021 Jan; 3(1):120-121. View on Pubmed
  18. Wang R, Simoneau CR, Kulsuptrakul J, Bouhaddou M, Travisano KA, Hayashi JM, Carlson-Stevermer J, Zengel JR, Richards CM, Fozouni P, Oki J, Rodriguez L, Joehnk B, Walcott K, Holden K, Sil A, Carette JE, Krogan NJ, Ott M, Puschnik AS. Genetic Screens Identify Host Factors for SARS-CoV-2 and Common Cold Coronaviruses. Cell. 2021 01 07; 184(1):106-119.e14. View on Pubmed
  19. Fozouni P, Son S, Díaz de León Derby M, Knott GJ, Gray CN, D'Ambrosio MV, Zhao C, Switz NA, Kumar GR, Stephens SI, Boehm D, Tsou CL, Shu J, Bhuiya A, Armstrong M, Harris AR, Chen PY, Osterloh JM, Meyer-Franke A, Joehnk B, Walcott K, Sil A, Langelier C, Pollard KS, Crawford ED, Puschnik AS, Phelps M, Kistler A, DeRisi JL, Doudna JA, Fletcher DA, Ott M. Amplification-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 with CRISPR-Cas13a and mobile phone microscopy. Cell. 2021 01 21; 184(2):323-333.e9. View on Pubmed
  20. Simoneau CR, Ott M. Modeling Multi-organ Infection by SARS-CoV-2 Using Stem Cell Technology. Cell Stem Cell. 2020 12 03; 27(6):859-868. View on Pubmed
  21. Samuel RM, Majd H, Richter MN, Ghazizadeh Z, Zekavat SM, Navickas A, Ramirez JT, Asgharian H, Simoneau CR, Bonser LR, Koh KD, Garcia-Knight M, Tassetto M, Sunshine S, Farahvashi S, Kalantari A, Liu W, Andino R, Zhao H, Natarajan P, Erle DJ, Ott M, Goodarzi H, Fattahi F. Androgen Signaling Regulates SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Levels and Is Associated with Severe COVID-19 Symptoms in Men. Cell Stem Cell. 2020 12 03; 27(6):876-889.e12. View on Pubmed
  22. Covarrubias AJ, Kale A, Perrone R, Lopez-Dominguez JA, Pisco AO, Kasler HG, Schmidt MS, Heckenbach I, Kwok R, Wiley CD, Wong HS, Gibbs E, Iyer SS, Basisty N, Wu Q, Kim IJ, Silva E, Vitangcol K, Shin KO, Lee YM, Riley R, Ben-Sahra I, Ott M, Schilling B, Scheibye-Knudsen M, Ishihara K, Quake SR, Newman J, Brenner C, Campisi J, Verdin E. Senescent cells promote tissue NAD+ decline during ageing via the activation of CD38+ macrophages. Nat Metab. 2020 11; 2(11):1265-1283. View on Pubmed
  23. Schoof M, Faust B, Saunders RA, Sangwan S, Rezelj V, Hoppe N, Boone M, Billesbølle CB, Puchades C, Azumaya CM, Kratochvil HT, Zimanyi M, Deshpande I, Liang J, Dickinson S, Nguyen HC, Chio CM, Merz GE, Thompson MC, Diwanji D, Schaefer K, Anand AA, Dobzinski N, Zha BS, Simoneau CR, Leon K, White KM, Chio US, Gupta M, Jin M, Li F, Liu Y, Zhang K, Bulkley D, Sun M, Smith AM, Rizo AN, Moss F, Brilot AF, Pourmal S, Trenker R, Pospiech T, Gupta S, Barsi-Rhyne B, Belyy V, Barile-Hill AW, Nock S, Liu Y, Krogan NJ, Ralston CY, Swaney DL, García-Sastre A, Ott M, Vignuzzi M, QCRG Structural Biology Consortium , Walter P, Manglik A. An ultrapotent synthetic nanobody neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by stabilizing inactive Spike. Science. 2020 12 18; 370(6523):1473-1479. View on Pubmed
  24. Gordon DE, Hiatt J, Bouhaddou M, Rezelj VV, Ulferts S, Braberg H, Jureka AS, Obernier K, Guo JZ, Batra J, Kaake RM, Weckstein AR, Owens TW, Gupta M, Pourmal S, Titus EW, Cakir M, Soucheray M, McGregor M, Cakir Z, Jang G, O'Meara MJ, Tummino TA, Zhang Z, Foussard H, Rojc A, Zhou Y, Kuchenov D, Hüttenhain R, Xu J, Eckhardt M, Swaney DL, Fabius JM, Ummadi M, Tutuncuoglu B, Rathore U, Modak M, Haas P, Haas KM, Naing ZZC, Pulido EH, Shi Y, Barrio-Hernandez I, Memon D, Petsalaki E, Dunham A, Marrero MC, Burke D, Koh C, Vallet T, Silvas JA, Azumaya CM, Billesbølle C, Brilot AF, Campbell MG, Diallo A, Dickinson MS, Diwanji D, Herrera N, Hoppe N, Kratochvil HT, Liu Y, Merz GE, Moritz M, Nguyen HC, Nowotny C, Puchades C, Rizo AN, Schulze-Gahmen U, Smith AM, Sun M, Young ID, Zhao J, Asarnow D, Biel J, Bowen A, Braxton JR, Chen J, Chio CM, Chio US, Deshpande I, Doan L, Faust B, Flores S, Jin M, Kim K, Lam VL, Li F, Li J, Li YL, Li Y, Liu X, Lo M, Lopez KE, Melo AA, Moss FR, Nguyen P, Paulino J, Pawar KI, Peters JK, Pospiech TH, Safari M, Sangwan S, Schaefer K, Thomas PV, Thwin AC, Trenker R, Tse E, Tsui TKM, Wang F, Whitis N, Yu Z, Zhang K, Zhang Y, Zhou F, Saltzberg D, QCRG Structural Biology Consortium , Hodder AJ, Shun-Shion AS, Williams DM, White KM, Rosales R, Kehrer T, Miorin L, Moreno E, Patel AH, Rihn S, Khalid MM, Vallejo-Gracia A, Fozouni P, Simoneau CR, Roth TL, Wu D, Karim MA, Ghoussaini M, Dunham I, Berardi F, Weigang S, Chazal M, Park J, Logue J, McGrath M, Weston S, Haupt R, Hastie CJ, Elliott M, Brown F, Burness KA, Reid E, Dorward M, Johnson C, Wilkinson SG, Geyer A, Giesel DM, Baillie C, Raggett S, Leech H, Toth R, Goodman N, Keough KC, Lind AL, Zoonomia Consortium , Klesh RJ, Hemphill KR, Carlson-Stevermer J, Oki J, Holden K, Maures T, Pollard KS, Sali A, Agard DA, Cheng Y, Fraser JS, Frost A, Jura N, Kortemme T, Manglik A, Southworth DR, Stroud RM, Alessi DR, Davies P, Frieman MB, Ideker T, Abate C, Jouvenet N, Kochs G, Shoichet B, Ott M, Palmarini M, Shokat KM, García-Sastre A, Rassen JA, Grosse R, Rosenberg OS, Verba KA, Basler CF, Vignuzzi M, Peden AA, Beltrao P, Krogan NJ. Comparative host-coronavirus protein interaction networks reveal pan-viral disease mechanisms. Science. 2020 12 04; 370(6521). View on Pubmed
  25. Xu C, Wang L, Fozouni P, Evjen G, Chandra V, Jiang J, Lu C, Nicastri M, Bretz C, Winkler JD, Amaravadi R, Garcia BA, Adams PD, Ott M, Tong W, Johansen T, Dou Z, Berger SL. SIRT1 is downregulated by autophagy in senescence and ageing. Nat Cell Biol. 2020 10; 22(10):1170-1179. View on Pubmed
  26. Wang R, Simoneau CR, Kulsuptrakul J, Bouhaddou M, Travisano K, Hayashi JM, Carlson-Stevermer J, Oki J, Holden K, Krogan NJ, Ott M, Puschnik AS. Functional genomic screens identify human host factors for SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronaviruses. bioRxiv. 2020 Sep 24. View on Pubmed
  27. Pérez-Bermejo JA, Kang S, Rockwood SJ, Simoneau CR, Joy DA, Ramadoss GN, Silva AC, Flanigan WR, Li H, Nakamura K, Whitman JD, Ott M, Conklin BR, McDevitt TC. SARS-CoV-2 infection of human iPSC-derived cardiac cells predicts novel cytopathic features in hearts of COVID-19 patients. bioRxiv. 2020 Sep 12. View on Pubmed
  28. Miao Y, Ha A, de Lau W, Yuki K, Santos AJM, You C, Geurts MH, Puschhof J, Pleguezuelos-Manzano C, Peng WC, Senlice R, Piani C, Buikema JW, Gbenedio OM, Vallon M, Yuan J, de Haan S, Hemrika W, Rösch K, Dang LT, Baker D, Ott M, Depeille P, Wu SM, Drost J, Nusse R, Roose JP, Piehler J, Boj SF, Janda CY, Clevers H, Kuo CJ, Garcia KC. Next-Generation Surrogate Wnts Support Organoid Growth and Deconvolute Frizzled Pleiotropy In Vivo. Cell Stem Cell. 2020 11 05; 27(5):840-851.e6. View on Pubmed
  29. Schoof M, Faust B, Saunders RA, Sangwan S, Rezelj V, Hoppe N, Boone M, Billesbølle CB, Puchades C, Azumaya CM, Kratochvil HT, Zimanyi M, Deshpande I, Liang J, Dickinson S, Nguyen HC, Chio CM, Merz GE, Thompson MC, Diwanji D, Schaefer K, Anand AA, Dobzinski N, Zha BS, Simoneau CR, Leon K, White KM, Chio US, Gupta M, Jin M, Li F, Liu Y, Zhang K, Bulkley D, Sun M, Smith AM, Rizo AN, Moss F, Brilot AF, Pourmal S, Trenker R, Pospiech T, Gupta S, Barsi-Rhyne B, Belyy V, Barile-Hill AW, Nock S, Liu Y, Krogan NJ, Ralston CY, Swaney DL, García-Sastre A, Ott M, Vignuzzi M, QCRG Structural Biology Consortium , Walter P, Manglik A. An ultra-potent synthetic nanobody neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by locking Spike into an inactive conformation. bioRxiv. 2020 Aug 17. View on Pubmed
  30. Chen IP, Ott M. Turning up the heat on HIV-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 07 14; 117(28):16109-16111. View on Pubmed
  31. Bouhaddou M, Memon D, Meyer B, White KM, Rezelj VV, Correa Marrero M, Polacco BJ, Melnyk JE, Ulferts S, Kaake RM, Batra J, Richards AL, Stevenson E, Gordon DE, Rojc A, Obernier K, Fabius JM, Soucheray M, Miorin L, Moreno E, Koh C, Tran QD, Hardy A, Robinot R, Vallet T, Nilsson-Payant BE, Hernandez-Armenta C, Dunham A, Weigang S, Knerr J, Modak M, Quintero D, Zhou Y, Dugourd A, Valdeolivas A, Patil T, Li Q, Hüttenhain R, Cakir M, Muralidharan M, Kim M, Jang G, Tutuncuoglu B, Hiatt J, Guo JZ, Xu J, Bouhaddou S, Mathy CJP, Gaulton A, Manners EJ, Félix E, Shi Y, Goff M, Lim JK, McBride T, O'Neal MC, Cai Y, Chang JCJ, Broadhurst DJ, Klippsten S, De Wit E, Leach AR, Kortemme T, Shoichet B, Ott M, Saez-Rodriguez J, tenOever BR, Mullins RD, Fischer ER, Kochs G, Grosse R, García-Sastre A, Vignuzzi M, Johnson JR, Shokat KM, Swaney DL, Beltrao P, Krogan NJ. The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Cell. 2020 08 06; 182(3):685-712.e19. View on Pubmed
  32. Leon K, Ott M. An 'Arms Race' between the Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay Pathway and Viral Infections. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2021 03; 111:101-107. View on Pubmed
  33. Vallejo-Gracia A, Chen IP, Perrone R, Besnard E, Boehm D, Battivelli E, Tezil T, Krey K, Raymond KA, Hull PA, Walter M, Habrylo I, Cruz A, Deeks S, Pillai S, Verdin E, Ott M. FOXO1 promotes HIV latency by suppressing ER stress in T cells. Nat Microbiol. 2020 09; 5(9):1144-1157. View on Pubmed
  34. Lyons DE, McMahon S, Ott M. A combinatorial view of old and new RNA polymerase II modifications. Transcription. 2020 04; 11(2):66-82. View on Pubmed
  35. Gordon DE, Jang GM, Bouhaddou M, Xu J, Obernier K, White KM, O'Meara MJ, Rezelj VV, Guo JZ, Swaney DL, Tummino TA, Hüttenhain R, Kaake RM, Richards AL, Tutuncuoglu B, Foussard H, Batra J, Haas K, Modak M, Kim M, Haas P, Polacco BJ, Braberg H, Fabius JM, Eckhardt M, Soucheray M, Bennett MJ, Cakir M, McGregor MJ, Li Q, Meyer B, Roesch F, Vallet T, Mac Kain A, Miorin L, Moreno E, Naing ZZC, Zhou Y, Peng S, Shi Y, Zhang Z, Shen W, Kirby IT, Melnyk JE, Chorba JS, Lou K, Dai SA, Barrio-Hernandez I, Memon D, Hernandez-Armenta C, Lyu J, Mathy CJP, Perica T, Pilla KB, Ganesan SJ, Saltzberg DJ, Rakesh R, Liu X, Rosenthal SB, Calviello L, Venkataramanan S, Liboy-Lugo J, Lin Y, Huang XP, Liu Y, Wankowicz SA, Bohn M, Safari M, Ugur FS, Koh C, Savar NS, Tran QD, Shengjuler D, Fletcher SJ, O'Neal MC, Cai Y, Chang JCJ, Broadhurst DJ, Klippsten S, Sharp PP, Wenzell NA, Kuzuoglu-Ozturk D, Wang HY, Trenker R, Young JM, Cavero DA, Hiatt J, Roth TL, Rathore U, Subramanian A, Noack J, Hubert M, Stroud RM, Frankel AD, Rosenberg OS, Verba KA, Agard DA, Ott M, Emerman M, Jura N, von Zastrow M, Verdin E, Ashworth A, Schwartz O, d'Enfert C, Mukherjee S, Jacobson M, Malik HS, Fujimori DG, Ideker T, Craik CS, Floor SN, Fraser JS, Gross JD, Sali A, Roth BL, Ruggero D, Taunton J, Kortemme T, Beltrao P, Vignuzzi M, García-Sastre A, Shokat KM, Shoichet BK, Krogan NJ. A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing. Nature. 2020 07; 583(7816):459-468. View on Pubmed
  36. Khan S, Lew I, Wu F, Fritts L, Fontaine KA, Tomar S, Trapecar M, Shehata HM, Ott M, Miller CJ, Sanjabi S. Low expression of RNA sensors impacts Zika virus infection in the lower female reproductive tract. Nat Commun. 2019 09 25; 10(1):4344. View on Pubmed
  37. Ali I, Ruiz DG, Ni Z, Johnson JR, Zhang H, Li PC, Khalid MM, Conrad RJ, Guo X, Min J, Greenblatt J, Jacobson M, Krogan NJ, Ott M. Crosstalk between RNA Pol II C-Terminal Domain Acetylation and Phosphorylation via RPRD Proteins. Mol Cell. 2019 06 20; 74(6):1164-1174.e4. View on Pubmed
  38. Schilling B, Meyer JG, Wei L, Ott M, Verdin E. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry to Identify and Quantify Acetylation Protein Targets. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1983:3-16. View on Pubmed
  39. Tomar S, Ali I, Ott M. A BAF'ling Approach to Curing HIV. Cell Chem Biol. 2018 12 20; 25(12):1441-1442. View on Pubmed
  40. Fozouni P, Ott M. How cells hush a viral invader. Nature. 2018 12; 564(7735):193-194. View on Pubmed
  41. Fontaine KA, Leon KE, Khalid MM, Tomar S, Jimenez-Morales D, Dunlap M, Kaye JA, Shah PS, Finkbeiner S, Krogan NJ, Ott M. The Cellular NMD Pathway Restricts Zika Virus Infection and Is Targeted by the Viral Capsid Protein. mBio. 2018 11 06; 9(6). View on Pubmed
  42. Ali I, Conrad RJ, Verdin E, Ott M. Lysine Acetylation Goes Global: From Epigenetics to Metabolism and Therapeutics. Chem Rev. 2018 02 14; 118(3):1216-1252. View on Pubmed
  43. Jeng MY, Hull PA, Fei M, Kwon HS, Tsou CL, Kasler H, Ng CP, Gordon DE, Johnson J, Krogan N, Verdin E, Ott M. Metabolic reprogramming of human CD8+ memory T cells through loss of SIRT1. J Exp Med. 2018 01 02; 215(1):51-62. View on Pubmed
  44. Boehm D, Ott M. Host Methyltransferases and Demethylases: Potential New Epigenetic Targets for HIV Cure Strategies and Beyond. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Nov; 33(S1):S8-S22. View on Pubmed
  45. Conrad RJ, Fozouni P, Thomas S, Sy H, Zhang Q, Zhou MM, Ott M. The Short Isoform of BRD4 Promotes HIV-1 Latency by Engaging Repressive SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes. Mol Cell. 2017 Sep 21; 67(6):1001-1012.e6. View on Pubmed
  46. Boehm D, Ott M. Flow Cytometric Analysis of HIV-1 Transcriptional Activity in Response to shRNA Knockdown in A2 and A72 J-Lat Cell Lines. Bio Protoc. 2017 Jun 05; 7(11). View on Pubmed
  47. Boehm D, Ott M. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Drug-induced HIV-1 Transcriptional Activity in A2 and A72 J-Lat Cell Lines. Bio Protoc. 2017 May 20; 7(10). View on Pubmed
  48. Boehm D, Jeng M, Camus G, Gramatica A, Schwarzer R, Johnson JR, Hull PA, Montano M, Sakane N, Pagans S, Godin R, Deeks SG, Krogan NJ, Greene WC, Ott M. SMYD2-Mediated Histone Methylation Contributes to HIV-1 Latency. . 2017 May 10; 21(5):569-579.e6. View on Pubmed
  49. Ali I, Conrad RJ, Ott M. Retrovirus Integration: Some Assembly Required? . 2016 Dec 14; 20(6):702-704. View on Pubmed
  50. Besnard E, Hakre S, Kampmann M, Lim HW, Hosmane NN, Martin A, Bassik MC, Verschueren E, Battivelli E, Chan J, Svensson JP, Gramatica A, Conrad RJ, Ott M, Greene WC, Krogan NJ, Siliciano RF, Weissman JS, Verdin E. The mTOR Complex Controls HIV Latency. . 2016 Dec 14; 20(6):785-797. View on Pubmed
  51. Khan S, Woodruff EM, Trapecar M, Fontaine KA, Ezaki A, Borbet TC, Ott M, Sanjabi S. Dampened antiviral immunity to intravaginal exposure to RNA viral pathogens allows enhanced viral replication. J Exp Med. 2016 12 12; 213(13):2913-2929. View on Pubmed
  52. Ott M, Marques D, Funk C, Bailer SM. Asna1/TRC40 that mediates membrane insertion of tail-anchored proteins is required for efficient release of Herpes simplex virus 1 virions. Virol J. 2016 Oct 20; 13(1):175. View on Pubmed
  53. Deeks SG, Lewin SR, Ross AL, Ananworanich J, Benkirane M, Cannon P, Chomont N, Douek D, Lifson JD, Lo YR, Kuritzkes D, Margolis D, Mellors J, Persaud D, Tucker JD, Barre-Sinoussi F, International AIDS Society Towards a Cure Working Group , Alter G, Auerbach J, Autran B, Barouch DH, Behrens G, Cavazzana M, Chen Z, Cohen ÉA, Corbelli GM, Eholié S, Eyal N, Fidler S, Garcia L, Grossman C, Henderson G, Henrich TJ, Jefferys R, Kiem HP, McCune J, Moodley K, Newman PA, Nijhuis M, Nsubuga MS, Ott M, Palmer S, Richman D, Saez-Cirion A, Sharp M, Siliciano J, Silvestri G, Singh J, Spire B, Taylor J, Tolstrup M, Valente S, van Lunzen J, Walensky R, Wilson I, Zack J. International AIDS Society global scientific strategy: towards an HIV cure 2016. Nat Med. 2016 08; 22(8):839-50. View on Pubmed
  54. Shirakawa K, Wang L, Man N, Maksimoska J, Sorum AW, Lim HW, Lee IS, Shimazu T, Newman JC, Schröder S, Ott M, Marmorstein R, Meier J, Nimer S, Verdin E. Salicylate, diflunisal and their metabolites inhibit CBP/p300 and exhibit anticancer activity. Elife. 2016 05 31; 5. View on Pubmed
  55. Meyers NL, Fontaine KA, Kumar GR, Ott M. Entangled in a membranous web: ER and lipid droplet reorganization during hepatitis C virus infection. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2016 08; 41:117-24. View on Pubmed
  56. Ali I, Ramage H, Boehm D, Dirk LM, Sakane N, Hanada K, Pagans S, Kaehlcke K, Aull K, Weinberger L, Trievel R, Schnoelzer M, Kamada M, Houtz R, Ott M. The HIV-1 Tat Protein Is Monomethylated at Lysine 71 by the Lysine Methyltransferase KMT7. J Biol Chem. 2016 07 29; 291(31):16240-8. View on Pubmed
  57. Conrad RJ, Ott M. Therapeutics Targeting Protein Acetylation Perturb Latency of Human Viruses. ACS Chem Biol. 2016 Mar 18; 11(3):669-80. View on Pubmed
  58. Rosenkranz E, Metz CH, Maywald M, Hilgers RD, Weßels I, Senff T, Haase H, Jäger M, Ott M, Aspinall R, Plümäkers B, Rink L. Zinc supplementation induces regulatory T cells by inhibition of Sirt-1 deacetylase in mixed lymphocyte cultures. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Mar; 60(3):661-71. View on Pubmed
  59. Striebinger H, Zhang J, Ott M, Funk C, Radtke K, Duron J, Ruzsics Z, Haas J, Lippé R, Bailer SM. Subcellular trafficking and functional importance of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein M domains. J Gen Virol. 2015 Nov; 96(11):3313-3325. View on Pubmed
  60. Jeng MY, Ali I, Ott M. Manipulation of the host protein acetylation network by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 50(4):314-25. View on Pubmed
  61. Funk C, Ott M, Raschbichler V, Nagel CH, Binz A, Sodeik B, Bauerfeind R, Bailer SM. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jun; 11(6):e1004957. View on Pubmed
  62. Lim HW, Kang SG, Ryu JK, Schilling B, Fei M, Lee IS, Kehasse A, Shirakawa K, Yokoyama M, Schnölzer M, Kasler HG, Kwon HS, Gibson BW, Sato H, Akassoglou K, Xiao C, Littman DR, Ott M, Verdin E. SIRT1 deacetylates RORγt and enhances Th17 cell generation. J Exp Med. 2015 Jun 01; 212(6):973. View on Pubmed
  63. Lim HW, Kang SG, Ryu JK, Schilling B, Fei M, Lee IS, Kehasse A, Shirakawa K, Yokoyama M, Schnölzer M, Kasler HG, Kwon HS, Gibson BW, Sato H, Akassoglou K, Xiao C, Littman DR, Ott M, Verdin E. SIRT1 deacetylates RORγt and enhances Th17 cell generation. J Exp Med. 2015 May 04; 212(5):607-17. View on Pubmed
  64. Vogt DA, Ott M. Membrane Flotation Assay. Bio Protoc. 2015 Apr 05; 5(7). View on Pubmed
  65. Simonti CN, Pollard KS, Schröder S, He D, Bruneau BG, Ott M, Capra JA. Evolution of lysine acetylation in the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. BMC Evol Biol. 2015 Mar 10; 15:35. View on Pubmed
  66. Ramage HR, Kumar GR, Verschueren E, Johnson JR, Von Dollen J, Johnson T, Newton B, Shah P, Horner J, Krogan NJ, Ott M. A combined proteomics/genomics approach links hepatitis C virus infection with nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Mol Cell. 2015 Jan 22; 57(2):329-340. View on Pubmed
  67. Verdin E, Ott M. 50 years of protein acetylation: from gene regulation to epigenetics, metabolism and beyond. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2015 04; 16(4):258-64. View on Pubmed
  68. Camus G, Schweiger M, Herker E, Harris C, Kondratowicz AS, Tsou CL, Farese RV, Herath K, Previs SF, Roddy TP, Pinto S, Zechner R, Ott M. The hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipid mobilization and enhances the ATGL interaction with comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) and lipid droplets. J Biol Chem. 2014 Dec 26; 289(52):35770-80. View on Pubmed
  69. Schröder S, Herker E, Itzen F, He D, Thomas S, Gilchrist DA, Kaehlcke K, Cho S, Pollard KS, Capra JA, Schnölzer M, Cole PA, Geyer M, Bruneau BG, Adelman K, Ott M. Acetylation of RNA polymerase II regulates growth-factor-induced gene transcription in mammalian cells. Mol Cell. 2013 Nov 07; 52(3):314-24. View on Pubmed
  70. Webster B, Ott M, Greene WC. Evasion of superinfection exclusion and elimination of primary viral RNA by an adapted strain of hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 2013 Dec; 87(24):13354-69. View on Pubmed
  71. Verdin E, Ott M. Acetylphosphate: a novel link between lysine acetylation and intermediary metabolism in bacteria. Mol Cell. 2013 Jul 25; 51(2):132-4. View on Pubmed
  72. Boehm D, Conrad RJ, Ott M. Bromodomain proteins in HIV infection. Viruses. 2013 Jun 21; 5(6):1571-86. View on Pubmed
  73. Ott M, Verdin E. Three rules for HIV latency: location, location, and location. . 2013 Jun 12; 13(6):625-6. View on Pubmed
  74. Camus G, Ott M. How the antiviral immune response boosts liver fat. Nat Med. 2013 Jun; 19(6):671-2. View on Pubmed
  75. Vogt DA, Camus G, Herker E, Webster BR, Tsou CL, Greene WC, Yen TS, Ott M. Lipid droplet-binding protein TIP47 regulates hepatitis C Virus RNA replication through interaction with the viral NS5A protein. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(4):e1003302. View on Pubmed
  76. Camus G, Herker E, Modi AA, Haas JT, Ramage HR, Farese RV, Ott M. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 localizes hepatitis C virus NS5A protein to lipid droplets and enhances NS5A interaction with the viral capsid core. J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 05; 288(14):9915-9923. View on Pubmed
  77. Knipe DM, Lieberman PM, Jung JU, McBride AA, Morris KV, Ott M, Margolis D, Nieto A, Nevels M, Parks RJ, Kristie TM. Snapshots: chromatin control of viral infection. Virology. 2013 Jan 05; 435(1):141-56. View on Pubmed
  78. Camus G, Vogt DA, Kondratowicz AS, Ott M. Lipid droplets and viral infections. Methods Cell Biol. 2013; 116:167-90. View on Pubmed
  79. Webster B, Wissing S, Herker E, Ott M, Greene WC. Rapid intracellular competition between hepatitis C viral genomes as a result of mitosis. J Virol. 2013 Jan; 87(1):581-96. View on Pubmed
  80. Kwon HS, Lim HW, Wu J, Schnölzer M, Verdin E, Ott M. Three novel acetylation sites in the Foxp3 transcription factor regulate the suppressive activity of regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2012 Mar 15; 188(6):2712-21. View on Pubmed
  81. Boehm D, Calvanese V, Dar RD, Xing S, Schroeder S, Martins L, Aull K, Li PC, Planelles V, Bradner JE, Zhou MM, Siliciano RF, Weinberger L, Verdin E, Ott M. BET bromodomain-targeting compounds reactivate HIV from latency via a Tat-independent mechanism. . 2013 Feb 01; 12(3):452-62. View on Pubmed
  82. Ott M, Geyer M, Zhou Q. The control of HIV transcription: keeping RNA polymerase II on track. . 2011 Nov 17; 10(5):426-35. View on Pubmed
  83. Herker E, Ott M. Emerging role of lipid droplets in host/pathogen interactions. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 20; 287(4):2280-7. View on Pubmed
  84. Schröder S, Cho S, Zeng L, Zhang Q, Kaehlcke K, Mak L, Lau J, Bisgrove D, Schnölzer M, Verdin E, Zhou MM, Ott M. Two-pronged binding with bromodomain-containing protein 4 liberates positive transcription elongation factor b from inactive ribonucleoprotein complexes. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 06; 287(2):1090-9. View on Pubmed
  85. Harris C, Herker E, Farese RV, Ott M. Hepatitis C virus core protein decreases lipid droplet turnover: a mechanism for core-induced steatosis. J Biol Chem. 2011 Dec 09; 286(49):42615-42625. View on Pubmed
  86. Sakane N, Kwon HS, Pagans S, Kaehlcke K, Mizusawa Y, Kamada M, Lassen KG, Chan J, Greene WC, Schnoelzer M, Ott M. Activation of HIV transcription by the viral Tat protein requires a demethylation step mediated by lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1). PLoS Pathog. 2011 Aug; 7(8):e1002184. View on Pubmed
  87. Ott M, Tascher G, Haßdenteufel S, Zimmermann R, Haas J, Bailer SM. Functional characterization of the essential tail anchor of the herpes simplex virus type 1 nuclear egress protein pUL34. J Gen Virol. 2011 Dec; 92(Pt 12):2734-2745. View on Pubmed
  88. Herker E, Ott M. Unique ties between hepatitis C virus replication and intracellular lipids. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jun; 22(6):241-8. View on Pubmed
  89. Ott M. HIV never ceases to surprise: Innovative methods in the quest for a cure. Methods. 2011 Jan; 53(1):1-2. View on Pubmed
  90. Herker E, Harris C, Hernandez C, Carpentier A, Kaehlcke K, Rosenberg AR, Farese RV, Ott M. Efficient hepatitis C virus particle formation requires diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1. Nat Med. 2010 Nov; 16(11):1295-8. View on Pubmed
  91. Min SW, Cho SH, Zhou Y, Schroeder S, Haroutunian V, Seeley WW, Huang EJ, Shen Y, Masliah E, Mukherjee C, Meyers D, Cole PA, Ott M, Gan L. Acetylation of tau inhibits its degradation and contributes to tauopathy. Neuron. 2010 Sep 23; 67(6):953-66. View on Pubmed
  92. Pagans S, Sakane N, Schnölzer M, Ott M. Characterization of HIV Tat modifications using novel methyl-lysine-specific antibodies. Methods. 2011 Jan; 53(1):91-6. View on Pubmed
  93. Cho S, Schroeder S, Ott M. CYCLINg through transcription: posttranslational modifications of P-TEFb regulate transcription elongation. . 2010 May; 9(9):1697-705. View on Pubmed
  94. Ott M, Verdin E. HAT trick: p300, small molecule, inhibitor. Chem Biol. 2010 May 28; 17(5):417-8. View on Pubmed
  95. Pagans S, Kauder SE, Kaehlcke K, Sakane N, Schroeder S, Dormeyer W, Trievel RC, Verdin E, Schnolzer M, Ott M. The Cellular lysine methyltransferase Set7/9-KMT7 binds HIV-1 TAR RNA, monomethylates the viral transactivator Tat, and enhances HIV transcription. . 2010 Mar 18; 7(3):234-44. View on Pubmed
  96. Cho S, Schroeder S, Kaehlcke K, Kwon HS, Pedal A, Herker E, Schnoelzer M, Ott M. Acetylation of cyclin T1 regulates the equilibrium between active and inactive P-TEFb in cells. EMBO J. 2009 May 20; 28(10):1407-17. View on Pubmed
  97. Ott M, Fricker G, Bauer B. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier: functional similarities between pig and human PXR. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Apr; 329(1):141-9. View on Pubmed
  98. Nakamura K, Nemani VM, Wallender EK, Kaehlcke K, Ott M, Edwards RH. Optical reporters for the conformation of alpha-synuclein reveal a specific interaction with mitochondria. J Neurosci. 2008 Nov 19; 28(47):12305-17. View on Pubmed
  99. Kwon HS, Ott M. The ups and downs of SIRT1. Trends Biochem Sci. 2008 Nov; 33(11):517-25. View on Pubmed
  100. Kwon HS, Brent MM, Getachew R, Jayakumar P, Chen LF, Schnolzer M, McBurney MW, Marmorstein R, Greene WC, Ott M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein inhibits the SIRT1 deacetylase and induces T cell hyperactivation. . 2008 Mar 13; 3(3):158-67. View on Pubmed
  101. Hetzer C, Bisgrove D, Cohen MS, Pedal A, Kaehlcke K, Speyerer A, Bartscherer K, Taunton J, Ott M. Recruitment and activation of RSK2 by HIV-1 Tat. PLoS One. 2007 Jan 17; 2(1):e151. View on Pubmed
  102. Nieters A, Kallinowski B, Brennan P, Ott M, Maynadié M, Benavente Y, Foretova L, Cocco PL, Staines A, Vornanen M, Whitby D, Boffetta P, Becker N, De Sanjosé S. Hepatitis C and risk of lymphoma: results of the European multicenter case-control study EPILYMPH. Gastroenterology. 2006 Dec; 131(6):1879-86. View on Pubmed
  103. Mahmoudi T, Parra M, Vries RG, Kauder SE, Verrijzer CP, Ott M, Verdin E. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex is a cofactor for Tat transactivation of the HIV promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 21; 281(29):19960-8. View on Pubmed
  104. Dormeyer W, Ott M, Schnölzer M. Analysis of p300 acetyltransferase substrate specificity by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. Methods. 2005 Aug; 36(4):376-82. View on Pubmed
  105. Hetzer C, Dormeyer W, Schnölzer M, Ott M. Decoding Tat: the biology of HIV Tat posttranslational modifications. Microbes Infect. 2005 Oct; 7(13):1364-9. View on Pubmed
  106. Dormeyer W, Ott M, Schnölzer M. Probing lysine acetylation in proteins: strategies, limitations, and pitfalls of in vitro acetyltransferase assays. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005 Sep; 4(9):1226-39. View on Pubmed
  107. Pagans S, Pedal A, North BJ, Kaehlcke K, Marshall BL, Dorr A, Hetzer-Egger C, Henklein P, Frye R, McBurney MW, Hruby H, Jung M, Verdin E, Ott M. SIRT1 regulates HIV transcription via Tat deacetylation. PLoS Biol. 2005 Feb; 3(2):e41. View on Pubmed
  108. Schwer B, Ren S, Pietschmann T, Kartenbeck J, Kaehlcke K, Bartenschlager R, Yen TS, Ott M. Targeting of hepatitis C virus core protein to mitochondria through a novel C-terminal localization motif. J Virol. 2004 Aug; 78(15):7958-68. View on Pubmed
  109. Witte V, Laffert B, Rosorius O, Lischka P, Blume K, Galler G, Stilper A, Willbold D, D'Aloja P, Sixt M, Kolanus J, Ott M, Kolanus W, Schuler G, Baur AS. HIV-1 Nef mimics an integrin receptor signal that recruits the polycomb group protein Eed to the plasma membrane. Mol Cell. 2004 Jan 30; 13(2):179-90. View on Pubmed
  110. Ott M, Dorr A, Hetzer-Egger C, Kaehlcke K, Schnolzer M, Henklein P, Cole P, Zhou MM, Verdin E. Tat acetylation: a regulatory switch between early and late phases in HIV transcription elongation. Novartis Found Symp. 2004; 259:182-93; discussion 193-6, 223-5. View on Pubmed
  111. Dormeyer W, Dorr A, Ott M, Schnölzer M. Acetylation of the HIV-1 Tat protein: an in vitro study. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003 Aug; 376(7):994-1005. View on Pubmed
  112. Kaehlcke K, Dorr A, Hetzer-Egger C, Kiermer V, Henklein P, Schnoelzer M, Loret E, Cole PA, Verdin E, Ott M. Acetylation of Tat defines a cyclinT1-independent step in HIV transactivation. Mol Cell. 2003 Jul; 12(1):167-76. View on Pubmed
  113. Fritzsching B, Schwer B, Kartenbeck J, Pedal A, Horejsi V, Ott M. Release and intercellular transfer of cell surface CD81 via microparticles. J Immunol. 2002 Nov 15; 169(10):5531-7. View on Pubmed
  114. Schwer B, North BJ, Frye RA, Ott M, Verdin E. The human silent information regulator (Sir)2 homologue hSIRT3 is a mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase. J Cell Biol. 2002 Aug 19; 158(4):647-57. View on Pubmed
  115. Dorr A, Kiermer V, Pedal A, Rackwitz HR, Henklein P, Schubert U, Zhou MM, Verdin E, Ott M. Transcriptional synergy between Tat and PCAF is dependent on the binding of acetylated Tat to the PCAF bromodomain. EMBO J. 2002 Jun 03; 21(11):2715-23. View on Pubmed
  116. Mujtaba S, He Y, Zeng L, Farooq A, Carlson JE, Ott M, Verdin E, Zhou MM. Structural basis of lysine-acetylated HIV-1 Tat recognition by PCAF bromodomain. Mol Cell. 2002 Mar; 9(3):575-86. View on Pubmed