Elise Riley, PhD

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(628) 206-4983

1001 Potrero Ave
San Francisco, CA 94110

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  • Professor, School of Medicine

Biography

Trained as an infectious disease epidemiologist, Dr. Riley is interested in how clinical, biological and behavioral factors converge to influence health. Her community-based research focuses on co-morbidities and competing risks in very low-income populations, with an emphasis on homelessness and associated conditions. She works with a team of multidisciplinary investigators and postdoctoral fellows on a research program that includes “Polysubstance Use and Health Outcomes Evaluation” (PULSE). PULSE investigates the combined influences of HIV, co-infections and substance use (medications, legal drugs like alcohol and illegal drugs) on the cardiac health of homeless women. The aim of the study is to provide clinical tools for risk assessment in order to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. The goal of Dr. Riley’s overall program is to inform health care delivery and prepare junior investigators for careers in patient-oriented health disparities research.

Displaying 1 - 83 of 83

  1. Riley ED, Vittinghoff E, Kagawa RMC, Raven MC, Eagen KV, Cohee A, Dilworth SE, Shumway M. Violence and Emergency Department Use among Community-Recruited Women Who Experience Homelessness and Housing Instability. J Urban Health. 2020 Jan 06. View on Pubmed
  2. Nápoles TM, Batchelder AW, Lin A, Moran L, Johnson MO, Shumway M, Luetkemeyer AF, Peters MG, Eagen KV, Riley ED. HCV treatment barriers among HIV/HCV co-infected patients in the US: a qualitative study to understand low uptake among marginalized populations in the DAA era. J Public Health (Oxf). 2019 12 20; 41(4):e283-e289. View on Pubmed
  3. Rowe CL, Riley ED, Eagen K, Zevin B, Coffin PO. Drug overdose mortality among residents of single room occupancy buildings in San Francisco, California, 2010-2017. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Nov 01; 204:107571. View on Pubmed
  4. Riley ED, Vittinghoff E, Koss CA, Christopoulos KA, Clemenzi-Allen A, Dilworth SE, Carrico AW. Housing First: Unsuppressed Viral Load Among Women Living with HIV in San Francisco. AIDS Behav. 2019 Sep; 23(9):2326-2336. View on Pubmed
  5. Shumway M, Luetkemeyer AF, Peters MG, Johnson MO, Napoles TM, Riley ED. Direct-acting antiviral treatment for HIV/HCV patients in safety net settings: patient and provider preferences. AIDS Care. 2019 Nov; 31(11):1340-1347. View on Pubmed
  6. Meacham MC, Bahorik AL, Shumway M, Marquez C, Riley ED. Condomless Sex and Psychiatric Comorbidity in the Context of Constrained Survival Choices: A Longitudinal Study Among Homeless and Unstably Housed Women. AIDS Behav. 2019 Mar; 23(3):802-812. View on Pubmed
  7. A.W. Carrico, A. Flentje, K. Kober, S. Lee, P. Hunt, E.D. Riley, S. Shoptaw, E. Flowers, S.E. Dilworth, S. Pahwa, B.E. Aouizerat. Abstract # 2036 Recent stimulant use and leukocyte gene expression in methamphetamine users with treated HIV infection. Brain Behavior and Immunity. 2019 Feb 1; 76:e1. View on Pubmed
  8. Carrico AW, Hunt PW, Neilands TB, Dilworth SE, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Riley ED. Stimulant Use and Viral Suppression in the Era of Universal Antiretroviral Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 01 01; 80(1):89-93. View on Pubmed
  9. Flentje A, Brennan J, Satyanarayana S, Shumway M, Riley E. Quantifying Sexual Orientation Among Homeless and Unstably Housed Women in a Longitudinal Study: Identity, Behavior, and Fluctuations Over a Three-Year Period. J Homosex. 2020; 67(2):244-264. View on Pubmed
  10. Christopoulos KA, Riley ED, Carrico AW, Tulsky J, Moskowitz JT, Dilworth S, Coffin LS, Wilson L, Peretz JJ, Hilton JF. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Virologic Suppression and Retention in Care in an Urban Safety-Net Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinic: The Connect4Care Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 08 16; 67(5):751-759. View on Pubmed
  11. Carrico AW, Flentje A, Kober K, Lee S, Hunt P, Riley ED, Shoptaw S, Flowers E, Dilworth SE, Pahwa S, Aouizerat BE. Recent stimulant use and leukocyte gene expression in methamphetamine users with treated HIV infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 07; 71:108-115. View on Pubmed
  12. Carrico AW, Cherenack EM, Roach ME, Riley ED, Oni O, Dilworth SE, Shoptaw S, Hunt P, Roy S, Pallikkuth S, Pahwa S. Substance-associated elevations in monocyte activation among methamphetamine users with treated HIV infection. AIDS. 2018 03 27; 32(6):767-771. View on Pubmed
  13. Turner C, Chandrakumar D, Rowe C, Santos GM, Riley ED, Coffin PO. Cross-sectional cause of death comparisons for stimulant and opioid mortality in San Francisco, 2005-2015. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 04 01; 185:305-312. View on Pubmed
  14. Meacham MC, Ramo DE, Kral AH, Riley ED. Associations between medical cannabis and other drug use among unstably housed women. Int J Drug Policy. 2018 02; 52:45-51. View on Pubmed
  15. Kim JE, Flentje A, Tsoh JY, Riley ED. Cigarette Smoking among Women Who Are Homeless or Unstably Housed: Examining the Role of Food Insecurity. J Urban Health. 2017 08; 94(4):514-524. View on Pubmed
  16. Brown RT, Hemati K, Riley ED, Lee CT, Ponath C, Tieu L, Guzman D, Kushel MB. Geriatric Conditions in a Population-Based Sample of Older Homeless Adults. Gerontologist. 2017 08 01; 57(4):757-766. View on Pubmed
  17. Young DA, Shumway M, Flentje A, Riley ED. The relationship between childhood abuse and violent victimization in homeless and marginally housed women: The role of dissociation as a potential mediator. Psychol Trauma. 2017 Sep; 9(5):613-621. View on Pubmed
  18. van Wijk XMR, Vittinghoff E, Wu AHB, Lynch KL, Riley ED. Cocaine use is associated with a higher prevalence of elevated ST2 concentrations. Clin Biochem. 2017 Sep; 50(13-14):791-793. View on Pubmed
  19. Peter Moore, Kara L. Lynch, Alan H.B. Wu, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Danny Li, Elise D. Riley. ASSOCIATION OF COCAINE AND AMPHETAMINE USE WITH TROPONIN I CONCENTRATIONS. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2017 Mar 1; 69(11):281. View on Pubmed
  20. Page K, Yu M, Cohen J, Evans J, Shumway M, Riley ED. HCV screening in a cohort of HIV infected and uninfected homeless and marginally housed women in San Francisco, California. BMC Public Health. 2017 02 07; 17(1):171. View on Pubmed
  21. Riley ED, Hsue PY, Vittinghoff E, Wu AH, Coffin PO, Moore PK, Lynch KL. Higher prevalence of detectable troponin I among cocaine-users without known cardiovascular disease. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Mar 01; 172:88-93. View on Pubmed
  22. Flentje A, Shumway M, Wong LH, Riley ED. Psychiatric Risk in Unstably Housed Sexual Minority Women: Relationship between Sexual and Racial Minority Status and Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Psychiatric Diagnoses. Womens Health Issues. 2017 May - Jun; 27(3):294-301. View on Pubmed
  23. Wong LH, Shumway M, Flentje A, Riley ED. Multiple Types of Childhood and Adult Violence Among Homeless and Unstably Housed Women in San Francisco. Violence Vict. 2016 12 01; 31(6):1171-1182. View on Pubmed
  24. Kelly JD, Cohen J, Grimes B, Philip SS, Weiser SD, Riley ED. High Rates of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in Homeless Women: Informing Public Health Strategies. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 08; 25(8):840-5. View on Pubmed
  25. Riley ED, Kral AH, Cohen J, Dilworth SE, Shumway M, Lynch KL. Levamisole-Contaminated Cocaine Use in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Unstably Housed Women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 09; 25(9):936-43. View on Pubmed
  26. Gómez W, Flentje A, Schustack A, Ramirez-Forcier J, Andrews B, Dilworth SE, Riley ED, Curotto A, Carrico AW. Navigating Barriers to Vocational Rehabilitation for HIV-Positive Persons. AIDS Behav. 2016 05; 20(5):1132-42. View on Pubmed
  27. Riley ED, Evans JL, Hahn JA, Briceno A, Davidson PJ, Lum PJ, Page K. A Longitudinal Study of Multiple Drug Use and Overdose Among Young People Who Inject Drugs. Am J Public Health. 2016 May; 106(5):915-7. View on Pubmed
  28. Lee CT, Guzman D, Ponath C, Tieu L, Riley E, Kushel M. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2016 Mar; 153:131-40. View on Pubmed
  29. Elise Riley, Judith A. Hahn, Jennifer L. Evans, Alya Briceno, Peter J. Davidson, Paula J. Lum, Kimberly Page. The longitudinal influence of multiple depressant use on nonfatal overdose among young people who inject drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2015 Nov 1; 156:e190. View on Pubmed
  30. Riley ED, Cohen J, Dilworth SE, Grimes B, Marquez C, Chin-Hong P, Philip SS. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women living in a resource-rich urban environment. Sex Transm Infect. 2016 06; 92(4):305-8. View on Pubmed
  31. Palar K, Kushel M, Frongillo EA, Riley ED, Grede N, Bangsberg D, Weiser SD. Food Insecurity is Longitudinally Associated with Depressive Symptoms Among Homeless and Marginally-Housed Individuals Living with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2015 Aug; 19(8):1527-34. View on Pubmed
  32. Riley ED, Shumway M, Knight KR, Guzman D, Cohen J, Weiser SD. Risk factors for stimulant use among homeless and unstably housed adult women. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Aug 01; 153:173-9. View on Pubmed
  33. Tsai AC, Weiser SD, Dilworth SE, Shumway M, Riley ED. Violent Victimization, Mental Health, and Service Utilization Outcomes in a Cohort of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women Living With or at Risk of Becoming Infected With HIV. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 May 15; 181(10):817-26. View on Pubmed
  34. Christopoulos KA, Riley ED, Tulsky J, Carrico AW, Moskowitz JT, Wilson L, Coffin LS, Falahati V, Akerley J, Hilton JF. A text messaging intervention to improve retention in care and virologic suppression in a U.S. urban safety-net HIV clinic: study protocol for the Connect4Care (C4C) randomized controlled trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 31; 14:718. View on Pubmed
  35. Doran KM, Shumway M, Hoff RA, Blackstock OJ, Dilworth SE, Riley ED. Correlates of hospital use in homeless and unstably housed women: the role of physical health and pain. Womens Health Issues. 2014 Sep-Oct; 24(5):535-41. View on Pubmed
  36. Riley ED, Cohen J, Knight KR, Decker A, Marson K, Shumway M. Recent violence in a community-based sample of homeless and unstably housed women with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Am J Public Health. 2014 Sep; 104(9):1657-63. View on Pubmed
  37. Weiser SD, Yuan C, Guzman D, Frongillo EA, Riley ED, Bangsberg DR, Kushel MB. Food insecurity and HIV clinical outcomes in a longitudinal study of urban homeless and marginally housed HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2013 Nov 28; 27(18):2953-8. View on Pubmed
  38. Knight KR, Lopez AM, Comfort M, Shumway M, Cohen J, Riley ED. Single room occupancy (SRO) hotels as mental health risk environments among impoverished women: the intersection of policy, drug use, trauma, and urban space. Int J Drug Policy. 2014 May; 25(3):556-61. View on Pubmed
  39. Riley ED, Cohen J, Shumway M. Overdose fatality and surveillance as a method for understanding mortality trends in homeless populations. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 08; 173(13):1264. View on Pubmed
  40. Vogenthaler NS, Kushel MB, Hadley C, Frongillo EA, Riley ED, Bangsberg DR, Weiser SD. Food insecurity and risky sexual behaviors among homeless and marginally housed HIV-infected individuals in San Francisco. AIDS Behav. 2013 Jun; 17(5):1688-93. View on Pubmed
  41. Weiser SD, Hatcher A, Frongillo EA, Guzman D, Riley ED, Bangsberg DR, Kushel MB. Food insecurity is associated with greater acute care utilization among HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed individuals in San Francisco. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Jan; 28(1):91-8. View on Pubmed
  42. Riley ED, Neilands TB, Moore K, Cohen J, Bangsberg DR, Havlir D. Social, structural and behavioral determinants of overall health status in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed HIV-infected men. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35207. View on Pubmed
  43. Chartier M, Carrico AW, Weiser SD, Kushel MB, Riley ED. Specific psychiatric correlates of acute care utilization among unstably housed HIV-positive adults. AIDS Care. 2012; 24(12):1514-8. View on Pubmed
  44. Elise D. Riley, James L. Sorensen, Kelly Moore, Jacqueline P. Tulsky, David R. Bangsberg, Torsten B. Neilands. Riley et al. Respond to “Co-occurring Health Conditions and Life Challenges”. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2011 Sep 1; 174(5):526-527. View on Pubmed
  45. Riley ED, Moore K, Sorensen JL, Tulsky JP, Bangsberg DR, Neilands TB. Basic subsistence needs and overall health among human immunodeficiency virus-infected homeless and unstably housed women. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Sep 01; 174(5):515-22. View on Pubmed
  46. Riley ED, Moore KL, Haber S, Neilands TB, Cohen J, Kral AH. Population-level effects of uninterrupted health insurance on services use among HIV-positive unstably housed adults. AIDS Care. 2011 Jul; 23(7):822-30. View on Pubmed
  47. Carrico AW, Bangsberg DR, Weiser SD, Chartier M, Dilworth SE, Riley ED. Psychiatric correlates of HAART utilization and viral load among HIV-positive impoverished persons. AIDS. 2011 May 15; 25(8):1113-8. View on Pubmed
  48. Carrico AW, Riley ED, Johnson MO, Charlebois ED, Neilands TB, Remien RH, Lightfoot MA, Steward WT, Weinhardt LS, Kelly JA, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Morin SF, Chesney MA. Psychiatric risk factors for HIV disease progression: the role of inconsistent patterns of antiretroviral therapy utilization. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Feb 01; 56(2):146-50. View on Pubmed
  49. Riley ED, Kral AH, Stopka TJ, Garfein RS, Reuckhaus P, Bluthenthal RN. Access to sterile syringes through San Francisco pharmacies and the association with HIV risk behavior among injection drug users. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):534-42. View on Pubmed
  50. Cooper EN, Dodson C, Stopka TJ, Riley ED, Garfein RS, Bluthenthal RN. Pharmacy participation in non-prescription syringe sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco counties, 2007. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):543-52. View on Pubmed
  51. Garfein RS, Stopka TJ, Pavlinac PB, Ross A, Haye BK, Riley ED, Bluthenthal RN. Three years after legalization of nonprescription pharmacy syringe sales in California: where are we now? J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):576-85. View on Pubmed
  52. Weiser SD, Neilands TB, Comfort ML, Dilworth SE, Cohen J, Tulsky JP, Riley ED. Gender-specific correlates of incarceration among marginally housed individuals in San Francisco. Am J Public Health. 2009 Aug; 99(8):1459-63. View on Pubmed
  53. Weiser SD, Frongillo EA, Ragland K, Hogg RS, Riley ED, Bangsberg DR. Food insecurity is associated with incomplete HIV RNA suppression among homeless and marginally housed HIV-infected individuals in San Francisco. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Jan; 24(1):14-20. View on Pubmed
  54. Carrico AW, Johnson MO, Morin SF, Remien RH, Riley ED, Hecht FM, Fuchs D. Stimulant use is associated with immune activation and depleted tryptophan among HIV-positive persons on anti-retroviral therapy. Brain Behav Immun. 2008 Nov; 22(8):1257-62. View on Pubmed
  55. Das-Douglas M, Riley ED, Ragland K, Guzman D, Clark R, Kushel MB, Bangsberg DR. Implementation of the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit is associated with antiretroviral therapy interruptions. AIDS Behav. 2009 Feb; 13(1):1-9. View on Pubmed
  56. Riley ED, Gandhi M, Hare C, Cohen J, Hwang S. Poverty, unstable housing, and HIV infection among women living in the United States. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2007 Dec; 4(4):181-6. View on Pubmed
  57. Petersen ML, Wang Y, van der Laan MJ, Guzman D, Riley E, Bangsberg DR. Pillbox organizers are associated with improved adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression: a marginal structural model analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct 01; 45(7):908-15. View on Pubmed
  58. Tsui JI, Bangsberg DR, Ragland K, Hall CS, Riley ED. The impact of chronic hepatitis C on health-related quality of life in homeless and marginally housed individuals with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2007 Jul; 11(4):603-10. View on Pubmed
  59. Riley ED, Weiser SD, Sorensen JL, Dilworth S, Cohen J, Neilands TB. Housing patterns and correlates of homelessness differ by gender among individuals using San Francisco free food programs. J Urban Health. 2007 May; 84(3):415-22. View on Pubmed
  60. Hahn JA, Kushel MB, Bangsberg DR, Riley E, Moss AR. BRIEF REPORT: the aging of the homeless population: fourteen-year trends in San Francisco. J Gen Intern Med. 2006 Jul; 21(7):775-8. View on Pubmed
  61. Weiser SD, Dilworth SE, Neilands TB, Cohen J, Bangsberg DR, Riley ED. Gender-specific correlates of sex trade among homeless and marginally housed individuals in San Francisco. J Urban Health. 2006 Jul; 83(4):736-40. View on Pubmed
  62. Bangsberg DR, Acosta EP, Gupta R, Guzman D, Riley ED, Harrigan PR, Parkin N, Deeks SG. Adherence-resistance relationships for protease and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors explained by virological fitness. AIDS. 2006 Jan 09; 20(2):223-31. View on Pubmed
  63. Weiser SD, Riley ED, Ragland K, Hammer G, Clark R, Bangsberg DR. Brief report: Factors associated with depression among homeless and marginally housed HIV-infected men in San Francisco. J Gen Intern Med. 2006 Jan; 21(1):61-4. View on Pubmed
  64. Riley ED, Moss AR, Clark RA, Monk SL, Bangsberg DR. Cash benefits are associated with lower risk behavior among the homeless and marginally housed in San Francisco. J Urban Health. 2005 Mar; 82(1):142-50. View on Pubmed
  65. Riley ED, Bangsberg DR, Guzman D, Perry S, Moss AR. Antiretroviral therapy, hepatitis C virus, and AIDS mortality among San Francisco's homeless and marginally housed. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Feb 01; 38(2):191-5. View on Pubmed
  66. Kral AH, Page-Shafer K, Edlin BR, Kellogg T, Riley E, Gee L, Moss A, Busch M, Klausner JD, Dilley J, McFarland W. Persistent HIV incidence among injection drug users in San Francisco during the 1990s: results of five studies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15; 37(5):1667-9. View on Pubmed
  67. Weiser SD, Guzman D, Riley ED, Clark R, Bangsberg DR. Higher rates of viral suppression with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors compared to single protease inhibitors are not explained by better adherence. HIV Clin Trials. 2004 Sep-Oct; 5(5):278-87. View on Pubmed
  68. Riley ED, Bangsberg DR, Perry S, Clark RA, Moss AR, Wu AW. Reliability and validity of the SF-36 in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed individuals. Qual Life Res. 2003 Dec; 12(8):1051-8. View on Pubmed
  69. Riley ED, Wu AW, Perry S, Clark RA, Moss AR, Crane J, Bangsberg DR. Depression and drug use impact health status among marginally housed HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003 Aug; 17(8):401-6. View on Pubmed
  70. Riley ED, Vlahov D, Huettner S, Beilenson P, Bonds M, Chaisson RE. Characteristics of injection drug users who utilize tuberculosis services at sites of the Baltimore city needle exchange program. J Urban Health. 2002 Mar; 79(1):113-27. View on Pubmed
  71. Riley ED, Safaeian M, Strathdee SA, Brooner RK, Beilenson P, Vlahov D. Drug user treatment referrals and entry among participants of a needle exchange program. Subst Use Misuse. 2002; 37(14):1869-86. View on Pubmed
  72. Riley ED, Wu AW, Junge B, Marx M, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. Health services utilization by injection drug users participating in a needle exchange program. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2002; 28(3):497-511. View on Pubmed
  73. Riley ED, Chaisson RE, Robnett TJ, Vertefeuille J, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. Use of audio computer-assisted self-interviews to assess tuberculosis-related risk behaviors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul 01; 164(1):82-5. View on Pubmed
  74. Doherty MC, Junge B, Rathouz P, Garfein RS, Riley E, Vlahov D. The effect of a needle exchange program on numbers of discarded needles: a 2-year follow-up. Am J Public Health. 2000 Jun; 90(6):936-9. View on Pubmed
  75. Elise D. Riley, Mahboobeh Safaeian, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Melissa A. Marx, Steve Huettner, Peter Beilenson, David Vlahov. Comparing New Participants of a Mobile Versus a Pharmacy-Based Needle Exchange Program. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2000 May 1; 24(1):57-61. View on Pubmed
  76. Riley ED, Safaeian M, Strathdee SA, Marx MA, Huettner S, Beilenson P, Vlahov D. Comparing new participants of a mobile versus a pharmacy-based needle exchange program. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 May 01; 24(1):57-61. View on Pubmed
  77. Junge B, Valente T, Latkin C, Riley E, Vlahov D. Syringe exchange not associated with social network formation: results from Baltimore. AIDS. 2000 Mar 10; 14(4):423-6.
  78. Riley E, Vlahov D, Safrahein M, Junge B, Beilenson P, Strathdee SA. NIDA Monograph. Gender Differences in Drug Use Patterns and Successful Referrals to Drug Treatment among Baltimore Needle Exchange Participants. 2000; (180):324.
  79. Junge B, Vlahov D, Riley E, Huettner S, Brown M, Beilenson P. Pharmacy access to sterile syringes for injection drug users: attitudes of participants in a syringe exchange program. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1999 Jan-Feb; 39(1):17-22.
  80. Laura Smith, Elise Riley, Peter Beilenson, David Vlahov, Benjamin Junge. A Focus Group Evaluation of Drop Boxes for Safe Syringe Disposal. Journal of Drug Issues. 1998 Oct 1; 28(4):905-919.
  81. Mostashari F, Riley E, Selwyn PA, Altice FL. Acceptance and adherence with antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected women in a correctional facility. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Aug 01; 18(4):341-8.
  82. Riley E, Beilenson P, Vlahov D, Smith L, Koenig M, Jones TS, Doherty M. Operation Red Box: a pilot project of needle and syringe drop boxes for injection drug users in East Baltimore. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998; 18 Suppl 1:S120-5.
  83. Vlahov D, Junge B, Brookmeyer R, Cohn S, Riley E, Armenian H, Beilenson P. Reductions in high-risk drug use behaviors among participants in the Baltimore needle exchange program. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997 Dec 15; 16(5):400-6.