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Edwin Charlebois, MPH, PhD
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Professor, School of Medicine
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As a senior scientist at the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) my research program focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of HIV infection and its consequences. Overarching this focus are translational science efforts to improve the methodology and evaluation of research and interventions aimed at controlling and eventually eliminating the domestic and international spread of HIV. Domestic HIV Research: My most recent domestic HIV prevention research is an evaluation of the potential effect of expanded ART and HIV testing strategies on reducing the number of new HIV infections in San Francisco. In this computational biology modeling paper published in CID in 2011 (with an accompanying editorial) we estimated significant reductions in new HIV infections are likely with expanded HIV treatment of those already in care and even greater gains with more frequent at-risk community HIV testing. This research along with the results of recent clinical trials were cited as evidence for a change in treatment policy in San Francisco to offer ART to all HIV infected persons. Our studies relate well with a recent editorial we published in 2010 in Archives of Internal Medicine wherein we highlight the importance of linking HIV infected persons into care and the associated potential HIV prevention benefits. Another priority research area for me is the development of methods for the evaluation of combination HIV prevention interventions. Combination HIV prevention interventions are specifically called for in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) and specific evaluation methods for them have been identified as significant scientific gap in our recently published 2011 editorial in JAIDS on setting the NIH research agenda for the NHAS. Specifically, I have received developmental funding to pursue novel evaluation methods for community-level combination HIV prevention interventions that involve surveillance measurements of community HIV viral load, intervention process measures and structural equation modeling. In addition I will be co-directing a research team assisting in the evaluation of the San Francisco implementation of the HRSA and CDC’s 12-city project – a combination HIV prevention intervention comprising 14 interventions. In the fall of 2011 I will be leading a national round-table on the state-of-the-art and future research directions for evaluation methods for combination HIV prevention interventions to be hosted by the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies. International HIV Research: Internationally, my research focus is on HIV and co-infections/interaction with Tuberculosis and Malaria. Primarily working in East Africa, I am Principal Investigator of three NIH sponsored grants and co-investigator on several more. I am currently studying effective strategies for diagnosing HIV among outpatient TB evaluation patients and their family and household members in a 2,000 person randomized trial of home-based versus TB clinic based HIV testing and utilization of same-day rapid HIV tests. I am also involved in studying interactions between HIV protease inhibitor treatment and malaria incidence in two additional randomized HIV treatment trials among HIV infected children and HIV infected pregnant women. On a broader scale I am co-leading the development of a three country research collaboration, SEARCH (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health) to study the community level effectiveness of a program of community-wide HIV testing and universal HIV treatment to all HIV infected persons and its effect on HIV, TB, Malaria incidence and community economic and educational productivity. My area of research within the collaboration focuses on the 40 community-cluster randomized design, its HIV specific end-points of HIV incidence and community HIV viral load, and the development and evaluation of streamlined HIV care and evaluation. Training the Next Generation of HIV Scientists: An important part of my research program is training and mentoring the next generation of HIV scientists. As the principal investigator of 2 large international data management and statistical support cores (one for a NICHD supported program project, and one for a NIAID funded International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research, ICEMR) – I am able to organize and support the cores as a resource for training and mentoring post-doctoral researchers and medical students in international HIV and clinical research. Through individual level research mentorship, a weekly international investigators seminar held in the US, the UCSF CAPS Traineeship in AIDS Prevention Studies (TAPS) program, and affiliated NIH K training grants, I supervise and assist between 3-5 trainees annually in the development of individual research projects, and epidemiologic and biostatistical training.
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- Marquez C, Chen Y, Atukunda M, Chamie G, Balzer LB, Kironde J, Ssemmondo E, Mwangwa F, Kabami J, Owaraganise A, Kakande E, Abbott R, Ssekyanzi B, Koss C, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV, Petersen ML. The Association Between Social Network Characteristics and Tuberculosis Infection Among Adults in Nine Rural Ugandan Communities. Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Aug 19.
- Liang C, Suen SC, Nguyen A, Moucheraud C, Hsu L, Holloway IW, Charlebois ED, Steward WT. The Impact of COVID-19 Response on the HIV Epidemic in Men Who Have Sex with Men in San Francisco County: The Importance of Rapid Return to Normalcy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2023 Jan 06.
- Atukunda M, Kabami J, Mutungi G, Twinamatsiko B, Nangendo J, Shade SB, Charlebois E, Grosskurth H, Kamya M, Okello E. Rationale and design of leveraging the HIV platform for hypertension control in Africa: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Uganda. BMJ Open. 2022 12 08; 12(12):e063227.
- Gutin SA, Neilands TB, Charlebois ED, Getahun M, Okiring J, Akullian A, Maeri I, Eyul P, Ssali S, Cohen CR, Kamya MR, Bukusi EA, Camlin CS. Mobility is Associated with Higher-risk Sexual Partnerships Among Both Men and Women in Co-resident Couples in Rural Kenya and Uganda: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. AIDS Behav. 2022 Nov 01.
- Maeri I, Eyul P, Getahun M, Hatchett K, Owino L, Akatukwasa C, Itiakorit H, Gutin SA, Johnson-Peretz J, Ssali S, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Camlin CS. Nothing about us without us: Community-based participatory research to improve HIV care for mobile patients in Kenya and Uganda. Soc Sci Med. 2023 Feb; 318:115471.
- Camlin CS, Getahun M, Koss CA, Owino L, Akatukwasa C, Itiakorit H, Onyango A, Bakanoma R, Atwine F, Maeri I, Ayieko J, Atukunda M, Owaraganise A, Mwangwa F, Sang N, Kabami J, Kaplan RL, Chamie G, Petersen ML, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Providers' Attitudes and Experiences with Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Implementation in a Population-Based Study in Kenya and Uganda. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2022 Oct; 36(10):396-404.
- Lee JK, Gutin SA, Getahun M, Okiring J, Neilands TB, Akullian A, Ssali S, Cohen CR, Maeri I, Eyul P, Kamya MR, Bukusi EA, Charlebois ED, Camlin CS. Condom, modern contraceptive, and dual method use are associated with HIV status and relationship concurrency in a context of high mobility: A cross-sectional study of women of reproductive age in rural Kenya and Uganda, 2016. Contraception. 2022 Sep 14.
- Epstein A, Nagata JM, Ganson KT, Nash D, Saberi P, Tsai AC, Charlebois ED, Weiser SD. Drought, HIV Testing, and HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors: A Population-Based Study in 10 High HIV Prevalence Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Behav. 2022 Sep 06.
- Nagata JM, Hampshire K, Epstein A, Lin F, Zakaras J, Murnane P, Charlebois ED, Tsai AC, Nash D, Weiser SD. Analysis of Heavy Rainfall in Sub-Saharan Africa and HIV Transmission Risk, HIV Prevalence, and Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2005-2017. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 09 01; 5(9):e2230282.
- Pujol-Hodge E, Salazar-Gonzalez JF, Ssemwanga D, Charlebois ED, Ayieko J, Grant HE, Liegler T, Atkins KE, Kaleebu P, Kamya MR, Petersen M, Havlir DV, Leigh Brown AJ. Detection of HIV-1 Transmission Clusters from Dried Blood Spots within a Universal Test-and-Treat Trial in East Africa. Viruses. 2022 07 29; 14(8).
- Johnson-Peretz J, Lebu S, Akatukwasa C, Getahun M, Ruel T, Lee J, Ayieko J, Mwangwa F, Owino L, Onyango A, Maeri I, Atwine F, Charlebois ED, Bukusi EA, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Camlin CS. "I was still very young": agency, stigma and HIV care strategies at school, baseline results of a qualitative study among youth in rural Kenya and Uganda. J Int AIDS Soc. 2022 07; 25 Suppl 1:e25919.
- Sheira LA, Kwena ZA, Charlebois ED, Agot K, Ayieko B, Gandhi M, Bukusi EA, Thirumurthy H, Camlin CS. Testing a social network approach to promote HIV self-testing and linkage to care among fishermen at Lake Victoria: study protocol for the Owete cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2022 Jun 06; 23(1):463.
- Mwangwa F, Charlebois ED, Ayieko J, Olio W, Black D, Peng J, Kwarisiima D, Kabami J, Balzer LB, Petersen ML, Kapogiannis B, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Ruel TD. Two or more significant life-events in 6-months are associated with lower rates of HIV treatment and virologic suppression among youth with HIV in Uganda and Kenya. AIDS Care. 2022 May 16; 1-11.
- Okiring J, Getahun M, Gutin SA, Lebu S, Lee J, Maeri I, Eyul P, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Neilands TB, Ssali S, Charlebois ED, Camlin CS. Sexual partnership concurrency and age disparities associated with sexually transmitted infection and risk behavior in rural communities in Kenya and Uganda. Int J Infect Dis. 2022 Jul; 120:158-167.
- Murnane PM, Gandhi M, Bacchetti P, Getahun M, Gutin SA, Okochi H, Maeri I, Eyul P, Omoding D, Okiring J, Tallerico R, Louie A, Akullian A, Kamya MR, Bukusi EA, Charlebois ED, Camlin CS. Distinct forms of migration and mobility are differentially associated with HIV treatment adherence. AIDS. 2022 06 01; 36(7):1021-1030.
- Jakubowski A, Kabami J, Balzer LB, Ayieko J, Charlebois ED, Owaraganise A, Marquez C, Clark TD, Black D, Shade SB, Chamie G, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kamya MR, Petersen M, Havlir DV, Thirumurthy H. Effect of universal HIV testing and treatment on socioeconomic wellbeing in rural Kenya and Uganda: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Glob Health. 2022 01; 10(1):e96-e104.
- Kamya MR, Petersen ML, Kabami J, Ayieko J, Kwariisima D, Sang N, Clark TD, Schwab J, Charlebois ED, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Peng J, Jain V, Chen YH, Chamie G, Balzer LB, Havlir DV. SEARCH Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Streamlined Treatment Intervention Reduces Mortality at a Population Level in Men With Low CD4 Counts. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 05; 73(7):e1938-e1945.
- Hickey MD, Ayieko J, Owaraganise A, Sim N, Balzer LB, Kabami J, Atukunda M, Opel FJ, Wafula E, Nyabuti M, Brown L, Chamie G, Jain V, Peng J, Kwarisiima D, Camlin CS, Charlebois ED, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kamya MR, Petersen ML, Havlir DV. Effect of a patient-centered hypertension delivery strategy on all-cause mortality: Secondary analysis of SEARCH, a community-randomized trial in rural Kenya and Uganda. PLoS Med. 2021 Sep; 18(9):e1003803.
- Jewell BL, Balzer LB, Clark TD, Charlebois ED, Kwarisiima D, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Petersen ML, Bershteyn A. Predicting HIV Incidence in the SEARCH Trial: A Mathematical Modeling Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2021 08 01; 87(4):1024-1031.
- Chen YT, Brown L, Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Ayieko J, Kabami J, Charlebois E, Clark T, Kamya M, Havlir DV, Petersen ML, Balzer LB. Social Networks and HIV Care Outcomes in Rural Kenya and Uganda. Epidemiology. 2021 07 01; 32(4):551-559.
- Ayieko J, Petersen ML, Kabami J, Mwangwa F, Opel F, Nyabuti M, Charlebois ED, Peng J, Koss CA, Balzer LB, Chamie G, Bukusi EA, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Uptake and outcomes of a novel community-based HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) programme in rural Kenya and Uganda. J Int AIDS Soc. 2021 06; 24(6):e25670.
- Akatukwasa C, Getahun M, El Ayadi AM, Namanya J, Maeri I, Itiakorit H, Owino L, Sanyu N, Kabami J, Ssemmondo E, Sang N, Kwarisiima D, Petersen ML, Charlebois ED, Chamie G, Clark TD, Cohen CR, Kamya MR, Bukusi EA, Havlir DV, Camlin CS. Dimensions of HIV-related stigma in rural communities in Kenya and Uganda at the start of a large HIV 'test and treat' trial. PLoS One. 2021; 16(5):e0249462.
- Shade SB, Kirby VB, Stephens S, Moran L, Charlebois ED, Xavier J, Cajina A, Steward WT, Myers JJ. Outcomes and costs of publicly funded patient navigation interventions to enhance HIV care continuum outcomes in the United States: A before-and-after study. PLoS Med. 2021 05; 18(5):e1003418.
- Shade SB, Osmand T, Kwarisiima D, Brown LB, Luo A, Mwebaza B, Mwesigye AR, Kwizera E, Imukeka H, Mwanga F, Ayieko J, Owaraganise A, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Charlebois ED, Black D, Clark TD, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Jain V. Costs of integrating hypertension care into HIV care in rural East African clinics. AIDS. 2021 05 01; 35(6):911-919.
- Koss CA, Havlir DV, Ayieko J, Kwarisiima D, Kabami J, Chamie G, Atukunda M, Mwinike Y, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Peng J, Olilo W, Snyman K, Awuonda B, Clark TD, Black D, Nugent J, Brown LB, Marquez C, Okochi H, Zhang K, Camlin CS, Jain V, Gandhi M, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Charlebois ED, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Balzer LB. HIV incidence after pre-exposure prophylaxis initiation among women and men at elevated HIV risk: A population-based study in rural Kenya and Uganda. PLoS Med. 2021 02; 18(2):e1003492.